Skip to content

Treatment Model

Child-Centered PT

Research Design

Randomized-Waitlist Control

Authors & Publication Information

Wilson, B. J. (2018). Child-centered play therapy: Aggression, empathy, and self-regulation. Journal of Counseling & Development.

Child Sample Characteristics

N = 71 elementary children

  • Age: 5-10; M=6.87
  • 83% male, 17% female
  • 52.1% African American, 21.1% Latina/o, 19.7% Caucasian, 7% multiracial

Study Characteristics

Individual CCPT

  • 8-16 sessions over 10 weeks; M=13.97
  • 2x weekly; 30 mins

Measurements

Children's Aggression Scale (CAS)
Social Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS)

Findings

Parents reported statistically and practically significant decreases in aggression, increased self-regulation and increased empathy after participation in CCPT.
Teachers reported nonstatistically significant results.

Expand for findings & study characteristics
Treatment Model

Cognitive-Behavioral PT

Research Design

Randomized-Waitlist Control

Authors & Publication Information

Azizi, A., Drikvand, F. M., & Sepahvandi, M.A. (2018). Effect of cognitive-behavioral play therapy on working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention among school-aged children with specific learning disorder: A preliminary randomized controlled clinical trial. Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-018-9914-7

Child Sample Characteristics

N = 30 children diagnosed with specfic learning disorder

  • Age: 7-9
  • 60% male, 40% female

Study Characteristics

Group Cognitive-Behavioral PT

  • 8 sessions
  • 2x weekly, 60-90 mins

Measurements

Digit Span Subscale of WISC-III
Wechsler Memory Scale - 4th Edition (WMS-IV)
Visual Continuous Attention Test (DAUF)

Findings

Compared to the control group, CBPT group participants demonstrated improvement in sustained attention , but no statistically significant improvement on working memory or short-term memory.

Expand for findings & study characteristics
Treatment Model

Child-Centered Group PT

Research Design

Repeated Measures Single Case|Randomized-Comparison Group

Authors & Publication Information

Swank, J. M., Cheung, C., & Williams, S. (2018). Play therapy and psychoeducational school-based group interventions: A comparison of treatment effectiveness. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 43(3), 230-249.

Child Sample Characteristics

N = 10 children

  • Age: 5-7; M=6.1
  • 40% male, 60% female
  • 30% African American, 60% Caucasian, 10% multiracial

Study Characteristics

Group CCPT

  • 6 sessions
  • 1x weekly, 30 mins
Skillstreaming Group
  • 6 sessions
  • 1x weekly, 30 mins

Measurements

Direct Observation Form (DOF)

Findings

Results indicated children participating in the group CCPT intervention were 4.18 times more likely to have a decrease in total problem behavior across the 6 week period compared to children in the skillstreaming group and 1.61 times more likely than children in the waitlist group.

Expand for findings & study characteristics
Treatment Model

Filial PT

Research Design

Randomized-Active Control

Authors & Publication Information

Opiola, K., & Bratton, S. (2017). Efficacy of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) for adoptive families: A replication study. Journal of Counseling and Development.

Child Sample Characteristics

N = 49 Adopted Children

  • Age: 2.5-9
  • 51% male, 49% female
  • 35% Cauc, 10% AfAm, 12% Latino, 22% Asian, 16% Biracial, 4% African

Study Characteristics

CPRT

  • 7 play sessions
  • 1x weekly; 30 mins
  • Measurements

    Measurement of Empathy in Adult-Child Interactions (MEACI)
    Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
    Parenting Stress Index 4 (PSI-4)

    Paraprofessional Characteristics

    N = 49 Adoptive Parents with Attachment Related Concerns

  • Age: 25-59

    • 61% female, 39% male
  • 85.7% Cauc, 2% AfAm, 6.1% Asian, 6.1% Latino
  • Findings

    Statistically significant findings and large treatment effects on all measures indicated the effectiveness of CPRT over the TAU on 1) reducing adopted children’s global behavior problems, 2) reducing parent-child relationship stress, and 3) increasing parent’s empathic behaviors as measured by objective raters blinded to the study. Finding s confirm Carnes-Holt and Bratton’s (2014) results.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Child-Centered PT

    Research Design

    Randomized-Waitlist Control

    Authors & Publication Information

    Ritzi, R.M., Ray, D.C., & Schumann, B.R. (2017). Intensive short-term child-centered play therapy and externalizing behaviors in children. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26(1), 33-46.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 24 children with behavioral concerns

    • Age: 6-9; M = 7
    • 75% male, 25% female
    • 71% Aus Cauc, 13% Lat, 8% Biracial, 4% Eng Cauc, 4% Asian

    Study Characteristics

    Individual CCPT

    • 20 sessions
    • 2x per day for 10 days; 30 mins

    Measurements

    Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
    Teacher Report Form (TRF)

    Findings

    Compared to waitlist control group, children who received CCPT demonstrated statistically significant decreases in externalizing behavior scores, aggressive behavior subscale scores, and rule-breaking behavior subscale scores on the CBCL, all with large effect sizes. Compared to the waitlist control group, children who received CCPT also demonstrated statistically significant decreases in externalizing problems scores and aggressive behavior subscale scores on the TRF with large effect sizes.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Activity PT

    Research Design

    Randomized - Active Control

    Authors & Publication Information

    Yousef, D. & Bratton, S. (In press). Group activity play therapy for preadolescent females: Effects on low self-esteem. Journal for Specialists in Group Work.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 29 girls referred by teachers for low self-esteem

    • Age: 9-11
    • 100% female
    • 45% Lat, 38% Cauc, 14% AfAm, 3% Asian

    Study Characteristics

    Group Activity PT

    • 16 sessions
    • 1x wkly; 45 mins
    AC = Social Skills Group Intervention (SSGRIN)
    • 13 sessions
    • 1x wkly; 45 mins

    Measurements

    Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC)
    Teacher's Rating Scale for Children's Actual Behavior (TRS)

    Findings

    Compared to the active control group, the activity play therapy group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in self-esteem with moderate to large effect sizes according to child self-report on the global self-worth scale of the SPPC. According to teacher report on the TRS, the activity play therapy group did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference compared to the active control group and yielded a small effet size.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Adlerian PT

    Research Design

    Repeated Measures Single Case

    Authors & Publication Information

    Stutey, D. M., Dunn, M., Shelnut, J., & Ryan, J. B. (2017). Impact of Adlerian play therapy on externalizing behaviors of at-risk preschoolers. International Journal of Play Therapy. 26(4), 196-206.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 4 at-risk preschool children

    • Age: 3-5; M=4
    • 25% male, 75% female
    • 100% African American

    Study Characteristics

    Adlerian PT

    • 14 individual sessions, 14 group sessions
    • 2x wkly; 30 mins

    Measurements

    Early Screening Project
    Direct Observations
    Intervention Rating Profile

    Findings

    Individual AdPT resulted in moderately effective improvements for three of four children in decreasing calling-out behaviors and moderately effective improvements in maintaining boundaries for all children. Group AdPT resulted in decreased calling-out and increased ability to maintain boundaries for all children.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Child-Centered PT

    Research Design

    Repeated Measures Single Group

    Authors & Publication Information

    Blanco, P. J., Holliman, R. P., Muro, J. H., Toland, S., & Farnam, J. L. (2017). Long term child-centered play therapy effects on academic achievement with normal functioning children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(7), 1915-1922.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 23 normal functioning 1st graders

    • 52% male, 48% female
    • N = 3 African American, N = 5 Hispanic, N = 15 White

    Study Characteristics

    Individual CCPT

    • 26 sessions
    • First 16 sessions: 2x weekly, 30 mins
    • Next 10 sessions: 1x weekly, 30 mins

    Measurements

    Young Children's Achievement Test (YCAT)

    Findings

    Children who participated in 26 sessions of CCPT demonstrated statistically significant improvements on the Early Achievement Composite as measured on the YCAT, along with increases across three subscales: Reading, Mathematics, and Spoken Language.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Child-Centered PT

    Research Design

    Nonrandomized-Waitlist Control

    Authors & Publication Information

    Cochran, J. L., & Cochran, N. H. (2017). Effects of child-centered play therapy for students with highly-disruptive behavior in high-poverty schools. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26(2), 59-72.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 65 elementary children (K-5)

    • Age: 5-11; M=7
    • 76.9% male, 23.1% female
    • 52.3% Caucasian, 38.5% African American, 7.7% Hispanic, 1.5% Native American

    Study Characteristics

    Individual CCPT

    • 9-22 sessions; M=17
    • 2x weekly; 30 mins

    Measurements

    Teacher's Report Form for Ages 6-18 of the Child-Behavior Checklist (TRF)
    Self-Efficacy Scale for Children - Teacher Version (SES)

    Findings

    Compared to waitlist control group, the CCPT group demonstrated significant differnces and moderate to large effects across total problems, externalizing, attention problems, and learning related self-efficacy, with no change in internalizing behaviors.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    Treatment Model

    Child-Centered Group PT

    Research Design

    Randomized Waitlist Control

    Authors & Publication Information

    Cheng, Y. & Ray, D.C. (2016). Child-centered group play therapy: Impact on social-emotional assets of kindergarten children. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 41(3), 209-237.

    Child Sample Characteristics

    N = 43 children identified with social or emotional concerns

    • Age: 5-6; M = 5.14
    • 70% male, 30% female
    • 44% Lat, 33% Cauc, 23% AfAm

    Study Characteristics

    Group CCPT

    • 15-16 sessions
    • 2x weekly; 30min

    Measurements

    SEARS-P Social and Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales - Parent
    SEARS-T Social and Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales - Teacher

    Findings

    Factorial ANOVA results indicated a statistically significant interaction effect on SEARS-P Total score, Social Competence subscale, and Empathy subscale indicating positive impact of CCGPT with medium effect sizes. SEARS-T indicated no statistically significant differences between groups with a small effect size. Group size held similar results.

    Expand for findings & study characteristics
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11